By Maria Anna van Driel, www.nexttruth.com
Since the dawn of the space age, space-based technologies, namely communications satellites, enable global telecommunications systems by relaying signals with voice, video and data to and from one or many locations. But that is all set to change soon.
CONTEC’s President Dr. Sunghee Lee (45) and his 32-headed team of engineers, software developers and satellite image processors have set goal to master a tremendous challenge in constructing corresponding networks for their customers and cooperation companies.
They are working hard to develop laser-based space communications systems and the technology of launch and satellite application fields which are the key to ensure rapid and accurate transmission of information from Earth-based alternatives to, among others, spacecrafts orbiting around the Earth.
The Korean company CONTEC (Collaborative and Novel Technologies) was founded in Jan. 5, 2015 with only a dream and a deep passion for engineering and all that future space technologies has to offer. Driven by the idea of ‘space being infinitive’, the company has overcome the challenge in creating a company system in where competent individuals are matching its philosophy what has propelled a snowball effect in its growth.
So, whether it comes to simply phoning a friend or using your Skype app, some of our daily communication is, without a doubt, based on sophisticated networks, with data being transferred at the speed of light between different nodes. And while these Earth-based alternatives to space technologies are already possible, it seems that CONTEC has definitely the people and knowledge to go beyond sophisticated networks and build your future highway in communication…yesterday!
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For more information on CONTEC, www.contec.kr
Or simply wait for the issue of April and the May/June issue of Young People Science in order to read the Q&A of Dr. Sunghee Lee 😊
This morning I read the tweet and blog post of Dr. Marc Wittman: “Letter from Italy: Treating the Virus with a Proper Time Perspective”. (The understanding of individual time psychology can help fight the pandemic) https://www.psychologytoday.com/intl/blog/sense-time/202003/letter-italy-treating-the-virus-proper-time-perspective
On his “Psychology Today” blog, Dr. Wittmann has posted a letter from his colleague Massimo Agnoletti, a Clinical Psychologist from Mestre, Italy, on how the coronavirus can be treated properly with the right time perspective.
Coincidence or not but I also have mentioned a few times the psychological effects in, for instance, the 3 minute video I posted two days ago. https://youtu.be/dgghDn-mUAo It is scary to see how this outbreak is effecting our thinking and thus behaviour… absorbing this avalanche of newsfeed is, seemingly, creating an out-of-balance behaviour by means of a stressy/forced brain activity. It almost sees as if we have slide into an odd form of survival mode.
However, I recommend you reading Dr. Wittmann’s blog post on the website of “Psychology Today” on the real effect(s) created by, among others, a psychological isolation. Indeed, our immune system has to deal with a second, invisible intruder!
Like all things in our world, they start small almost like a microscopic idea of nature itself. And with these myriad of microscopic evolutions incredible ideas are brought to live what has resulted, and is still resulting, in most amazing achievements!
Over the years I learned that many people are extremely hungry for absorbing the knowledge and the mind boggling complexity of the research conducted at universities and scientific institutes. Unfortunately, there are people who seem to think and work in the safe surroundings of what is already known and/or speak from written in text-books. Pseudoscience! It is utterly nonsense and b*llsh*t! Nothing more then superficial and meaningless words, gibberish talk! …are statements that are then uttered very easily, without any thought. But is that really fact? Are any new ideas and/or theories coming from challenging ‘known’ or ‘accepted’ knowledge really hypothetical nonsense?
Life is a cruel system, is it not? Or should I say society is? You work hard…really hard…for days, weeks, months… you put all your energy in your field and/or lab research, your calculations, or in finding the perfect words for your essay, thesis, book, article. During this period you slowly start to see a fabulous outcome. Yes…you are going to ace this for sure! Proudly you present the results of your hard work and then…reality kicks in. People say your calculations are gibberish, you have researched in the wrong direction and your book does not contain understandable grammar. SH*T!
Now you can throw all your notes out of the window from the highest building you can find and crawl into a deep and dark cellar hiding yourself from the world…getting consumed by this terrible feeling of disappointment. Okay, this sh*tty feeling is understandable but do really think you have failed? No, you did not!
And this determination and perseverance the world renowned contributors of The Next Truth are showing is what fires me up…time and time again! These people dare to challenge anything new, people who look into the world and say; “I believe in myself and I am not giving up!”
Yes… I am of the opinion that it is critical, absolutely critical, that our scientists and citizen scientists have to feel comfortable to undertake their work, to explore unconventional or controversial topics. They must be free to challenge the thinking of the day and to feel free to present uncomfortable or inconvenient truths, because THAT is how scientists push boundaries and pushing boundaries is, after all, what science is all about.[Top]
Don’t Just Visit the Past, Experience It!
By Maria Anna van Driel, www.nexttruth.com
The movies of Indiana Jones and The Librarian immediately come to mind with most people when hearing the word “archeology”. They like to think about the life of an archaeologist as a mysterious and a very adventurous endeavour. Well, they are partly right, except that this intriguing corner of science has mainly to do with extreme logistics and the scientific study of the material remains of past human life and activities rather than creepy mummies coming back to life, ghostly knights lingering in dark dungeons and sacred relics topped with glistening jewels.
In order for you to gain a better understanding of what Archeology and Egyptology is, The Next Truth reached out to the world-renowned Egyptian archaeologist, Egyptologist, and former Minister of State for Antiquities Affairs, Dr. Zahi Hawass.
Dr. Hawass was born in a small village near Damietta, Egypt. Although he originally dreamed of becoming an attorney, he obtained a bachelor of arts degree in Greek and Roman Archaeology from Alexandria University in Alexandria, Egypt in 1967 and in 1979, Dr. Hawass earned a diploma in Egyptology from Cairo University after which he then worked at the Great Pyramids as an inspector—a combination of administrator and archaeologist.
At the age of 33 he was awarded a Fulbright Fellowship to attend the University of Pennsylvania in Philadelphia to study Egyptology, earning a master of arts degree in Egyptology and Syro-Palestinian Archaeology in 1983, and his PhD in Egyptology in 1987 from the Graduate Group in the Art and Archaeology of the Mediterranean World, concentrating on “The Funerary Establishments of Khufu, Khafra and Menkaura During the Old Kingdom.”
In 1998 Dr. Hawass received the First Class Award for Arts and Sciences by the President. He was recognized by Time magazine as one of the world’s 100 Most Influential People in 2006 and received an Emmy Award from the Academy of Television Arts and Sciences for a documentary on ancient Egypt in 2006.
Over the course of his career Dr. Hawass has made a number of major discoveries that led to significant findings, including the Tombs of the Pyramid Builders at Giza and the Valley of the Golden Mummies at Bahariya Oasis. He also initiated the Egyptian Mummy Project, which used modern forensic techniques such as CAT scans to study both royal and non royal mummies. But besides being an archeologists and Egyptologist, Dr. Hawass is also a regular columnist for Egypt Today magazine, and the online historical community, Heritage Key and the author and co-author of many books relating to Egyptology which includes his latest book “Zahi Hawass’ Secret Egypt”.
To become more familiar with Dr. Hawass’ appearance in countless TV programs that have spread the story of ancient Egypt worldwide, and books visit his website, www.drhawass.com
Welcome Dr. Hawass. I appreciate the time you took for letting the next generation scientists peer into your career as an Archeologist, Egyptologist and the former Egyptian Minister of Antiquities and Director of Excavations at Giza, Saqqara, Bahariya Oasis, and the Valley of the Kings and Archeologist.
Q: You are a world-renowned archaeologist and an expert in the one branch of science that allows you to step into the history and culture of ancient Egypt. But for those young scientists who don’t know much about your background, can you tell us a little about yourself? Who is Dr. Zahi Hawass?
Dr. Hawass: I’m and archeologist and an Egyptologist, mostly well-known for having served as the Minister of Antiquities in Egypt. I started my career looking to be a lawyer, but then, I focused on archeology during my bachelors. I gained a Fulbright fellowship and travelled to the US where I got my doctorate. After that, I was able to do more and major excavations, write books, and give lectures. I was rewarded from many cities in the US, and received about 7 honorary doctorates. I was chosen as one of the Times’ top 100 in 2006. Currently, I am working in my research projects, excavating the Valley of the Kings and supervising the Egyptian project where we CT scan the mummies.
Q: Can you tell us a little bit about the history of Archeology?
Dr. Hawass: The history of archeology began by adventurers and treasure hunters; we can think of G.B. Belzoni who discovered Seti I’s tomb and Howard Vyse who opened tunnels in the Sphinx with dynamite. Then, this was followed by a wave of scientific research in the 19th century; here we can mention Flinders Petrie, the father of Egyptology, Lepsius from England, and many Egyptologists many began to introduce it as a science. The ancient Egyptian language began to be studied by all philologists worldwide.
In the 20th centuries, many countries began to establish departments to offer the chance to study Egyptology. University departments and museums used to come and excavate in Egypt with students from all over the world. The Egyptian archaeologists came after: the first was Ahmed Pasha Kamal who was involved in the cachette of the mummies in 1881. After that, Egypt entered a new era, opening departments for archeology with many students but still there was still a lack of training.
When I became head of the Supreme Council of Antiquities in 2002, I made major important work to train many young people in excavation techniques and for them to travel outside of the country and come back with doctorate degrees. Now Egyptology became a solid science in the country.
Q: How do you become an Archeologist and what are his or her responsibilities?
Dr. Hawass: You should start with undergraduate studies in archeology, follow it with a masters and then do postgraduate studies. If you can, join a university or a museum for employment. It is then important to do research in modern Egypt on ancient Egypt by working in excavations. It is also crucial to engage with other scholars and attend scientific conferences to present papers. In terms of responsibilities, one has to protect, excavate and write about monuments, do major conservation and publish what is discovered. Finally, one should give public lectures to spread awareness about Egyptology.
Q: Did you have a role model that influenced your decision to become an Archeologist?
Dr. Hawass: No, only the story that made me fall in love with archeology. There was no model for the public to take after. My decision to become an archeologist came from the fact that I had been working at an excavation in Egypt, when the workers called me to let me know they had found a beautiful female statue of Aphrodite. This was a wonderful object and as soon as I saw it, I felt that I had found my love: archeology.
It is important to have passion in this field of work as it can be challenging; passion is the main key for success as it gives one the endurance and the patience to not only keep going but to give a lot of efforts in the projects we take on.
Q: How do Archeologists know where to dig? Which tools are being used during an excavation?
Dr. Hawass: Archeologists know by conducting research to establish the reasons to excavate in a particular location. For example, when I began to look for the tombs of the pyramid builders, I studied the Giza plateau. I found the oldest limestone wall dated to the Old kingdom, this wall was to separate the royal and workmen. Also, in the same area, there was a mud seal with the hieroglyph ‘pr-sh- na’ (workmen installation). In my research, I put a question mark on that. When I returned after obtaining my doctorate from the University of Pennsylvania, I began to start looking. I found it in the same location I did my research in.
Discoveries also come by accident. You have to start the excavation regardless. We found the valley of the golden mummies in Bahareya oasis by complete accident. For instance, when the antiquities guard of the temple of Alexander the Great was riding on his donkey to his home, the leg of the donkey got stuck in a hole, the guard stepped off the donkey and he looked in the hole: he found tombs with mummies covered with gold. I went with my team for 3 years; we lived in Bahareya oasis and discovered the Valley of the golden mummies.
Q: Is being an Archeologist dangerous?
Dr. Hawass: Sometimes it is. For example, I was excavating the tunnel of Seti I and this tunnel goes down 174 m inside the mountains. While I was excavating, a stone about over a tone fell on my leg and broke my toes. Also, while I was excavating, looking for the tomb of Cleopatra and Mark Anthony, a stone half a ton in weight fell almost on my head. Thankfully, the stone was half a meter high away from my head but this made a macular hole in my eye. I can definitely say that archeology is dangerous, but adventurous and fun.
Q: On your website we can read that you have made a number of major discoveries over the course of your career, including the Tombs of the Pyramid Builders at Giza and the Valley of the Golden Mummies at Bahariya Oasis. How are these sites being secured and why?
Dr. Hawass: They are completely secured. Every tomb and antiquity site does have appointed guards. There are also security antiquities police in charge of the protection of the site and there is a system of inspectors and directors in every site. Their responsibility is to protect and maintain the sites so it is very well supervised.
Q: How are the historical and valuable artifacts, found at a site, stored and categorized?
Dr. Hawass: When an artifact is discovered, you clean it; you restore it on site if there is a need for it and before you remove it from the area in which it was found. Then, you carry out its documentation through photography. You write a description for it then put in a registry book that goes to the government. After that, you move the artifacts to a storage magazine to be kept safely. When you need to write a book or an article on the artifacts, you can go and study them to decide the date of this artifact.
Q: What is for you the most impressive find that you have made in your career?
Dr. Hawass: I think that every discovery I made has added something to me and to my life. For example, the tombs of the pyramid builders were very important for me as they were the ultimate proof and answer to all the people who hold extraordinary beliefs and theories about the pyramids. For example, those people who believe in aliens having built them or that Atlantis is under them.
When I found a new pyramid near Khufu’s pyramid that also made a very deep impression on me personally. When I did the CT scan of the mummies and successfully identified the mummy of Hatshepsut, and how Ramses III was murdered – these were crucial moments for Egyptology. And, you know with DNA we got to find out how Tutankhamun died as well as we were able to put together the family of Tutankhamun, identifying the grandparents and parents. Now, my excavations in the Valley of the Kings are revealing many important aspects to the East and West Valley; we are hoping that one day we will discover the tomb of Queen Nefertiti in either.
Q: Why is Archeology important today?
Dr. Hawass: It is important today because each and every country’s constitutes that of the whole world and humanity’s. Egypt, of course, is no exception. Moreover, studying the past and restoring it helps us understanding how things evolved until they came into being today and how they can keep evolving to the future. We need to learn and remind ourselves of the wisdom, science and technology of ancient people – all of these are important to be understood today.
Q: Today you can look back on an impressive career and much to be proud of; what would you say is a moment in your career that stands out as most meaningful?
Dr. Hawass: There are many good moments that I consider significant and that makes me proud: when I scanned the mummy of Tutankhamun. This happened in Luxor, when I took the coffins out and I met Tutankhamun face to face. Another great moment was when I found the secret doors inside the Great Pyramid of Giza. Another noteworthy event was when I found the tooth in the canopic box of Queen Hatshepsut; the molar lead me to properly identify her mummy. I would say these were some of the most beautiful moments in my life as an archeologist.
Q: What holds the future for your books and your career?
Dr. Hawass: As always, I am involved in many archeology and Egyptology projects. Moreover,I am now writing my life story which is almost done and due to be published soon. In terms of more work, I want to continue my excavation work in the Valley of the Kings as well as wrap up the second royal mummy project. Lastly, I am planning to give 20 lectures in 20 cities all over the US in May and June.
Q: Dr. Hawass, thank you so much for this interview. I am sure it will be an inspiration to many. Do you have any additional advice you can give for aspiring Archeologists who want to excavate and secure the mysteries of past civilizations?
Dr. Hawass: I think it is very important for individuals to be passionate about the work they are doing. When you have passion, you can achieve from the littlest to the biggest things. Not only will it give you perseverance but also patience to keep at it during difficult times.[Top]
The March/April issue of Young People Science is available online! https://www.magcloud.com/browse/magazine/1512517
In the March/April issue of Young People Science several renowned scientists are letting you curl up on the couch with your favorite soda and a bag of potato chips while they take you on an incredible journey through “Human History”.
But you can also take a real fun quiz about Neanderthals, drive your parents crazy while following the instructions of how to build a bubble-powered rocket in the kitchen 👩🚀, read crazy facts about medieval castles and much more.
So fasten your seatbelts as you are about to step into an adventurous journey to the era of ancient Egyptian with the world-renowned Archeologist and Egyptologist Dr. Zahi Hawass 🤠, learn from Prof. McAndrew why it is that we love blood-curdling screams 😱, and hear from Prof. Frederick L. Coolidge & Prof. Thomas Wynn how dreaming has changed human evolution, among others.
Ask your parents for you to purchase a PoD or digital version of Young People Science and share it with your teachers, parents, nephews, nieces and/or children from your neighborhood. Because, history is FUN!
Click on the link above, hit the ‘FOLLOW’ button as hard as you can and never miss an issue of “The Next Truth: Young People Science” 😃[Top]
Three super announcements of which I am proud to share with you all…
1) The issue of March is available via MagCloud but I have to put out a WARNING in advance. Some of the articles contain, for some people, a disturbing content and shocking photographs!
2) Dr. Hendra Kesuma, who was a speaker at the “Aerospace Europe Conference 2020” in France this month, distributed The Next Truth during this conference by handing over his French, Japanese and Canadian colleagues a copy of the January 2020 issue. WOW!
I am truly feeling honored that The Next Truth has gained this much attention. Thank you so much Dr. Kesuma for all the efforts made and I hope that new collaborations will result from this conference.
3) The website of The Next Truth has undergone some adjustments. For instance, the banner has changed and the new page “What is our goal” has been added. http://nexttruth.com[Top]
By Maria Anna van Driel, www.nexttruth.com
In a universe so vast, is there any hope of us traveling fast enough so that we could visit the far-off realms of space? Will we ever be able to plant a flag in the most distant quadrants of the cosmos? At this point in time we may be as far from reaching other stars as Leonardo da Vinci was from realizing an airplane but it has not stopped scientists from imagining the theoretical possibilities of interstellar travel.
Even time travel is somewhat unique in science fiction, it has long been the Holy Grail for modern science. Some say we will never be able to travel in time, while others believe we are close to achieving the impossible. But what if time travel already exists? According to general relativity – this might actually work. However, when it comes to our understanding of the Universe, general relativity may not be the final word. Theoretical physicist and Professor Emeritus Ronald L. Mallett says there is another way what makes traveling into the past a real option.
“In Einstein’s theory not only matter can create gravity but light itself can create gravity, explains Professor Mallett during the awe-inspiring Skype interview I had with him on the 4th of November 2019. “Even though light does not have matter, it has energy what can create gravity. And that is where my breakthrough is based on. If gravity can affect time and light can create gravity, then light can affect time.”
Although the concept of travelling in time via mechanical means was first popularized more than a century ago in 1895 by HG Wells’ novel “The Time Machine”, which was the first novel what inspired the young Ronald Lawrence Mallett to explore the mind-boggling scientific possibilities of time travel, Prof. Mallett has yet not published a description of a full scale version of his device of which the technology is based upon a ring laser’s properties in the context of Einstein’s general theory of relativity. But he has agreed with his critics that to distort space-time, to the necessary degree, would require a huge amount of energy, like stellar quantities. Nowadays, Prof. Mallett, who is an expert on Albert Einstein’s theories, still insists that time travel could become a reality.
Is time travel feasible? Did we already tackle the energy barrier and jumped through time and created new universe branches out into the future? And is there is a possibility that something has been done in the present, that a laser optical time machine and receiver transmitter (LOTART), described by Professor Mallett in his book “Time Traveler: A Scientist’s Personal Mission To Make Time Travel A Reality”, will still exist in the future?
To gain a better insight in both the rules which govern time travel and whether time travel is possible and not just the stuff of science fiction, I reached out to contact time travel specialist Professor Ronald L. Mallett and gained the privilege to meet him via a Skype conversation.
For the jaw-dropping concept of travelling through time and Prof. Ronald L. Mallett’s incredible research I can recommend the You Tube documentary “The World’s First Time Machine” in where he explains his theories on time travel and the journey that led him to his field of research.
Welcome Professor Mallett, I appreciate the time you took for letting us peer into your career as a theoretical physicist and some of your ideas, theories and research within this intriguing topic of Time Travel.
Q: You are a well known Theoretical physicist and an expert in the one branch of science that allows you to tinker with time. But for those people who don’t know much about your background, can you tell us a little about yourself? Who is Ronald Lawrence Mallett?
Prof. Mallett: I am a theoretical physicist and Professor emeritus and a member of both the American Physical Society and the National Society of Black Physicists. I grew up in the Bronx, New York and I was the oldest of 4 children. As I was growing up my father, who was a TV-repairman and the centre of my life, would give me toys like for instance a gyroscope and a crystal radio set. I love reading and I go to the movies for entertainment.
Q: After your father passed on you decided to become a scientist at the age of ten. Was it already clear to you that you would study Physics?
Prof. Mallett: Approximately a year after my father had passed on I read H. C. Wells, “The Time Machine” what contained a phrase that caught my attention. It said; “Scientific people know very well that time is only a kind of space and we could move forward and backward in time just as we can move forward and backward in space.”
For me ‘that’ was the key phrasing that there was a true possibility for us to travel through time and space. It was a life preserver, like a revelation. I thought, that, if we could travel back in time, I can build a time machine and go back in time to see my father again and maybe change things…save his life. And that became an obsession for me. This is the reason why I became interested in physics and time travel.
Q: Your research is based on the two theories of Albert Einstein. How did you become familiar with Einstein’s work?
Prof. Mallett: I visit a Salvation Army bookstore where I came across the book “The Universe and Dr. Einstein”. The cover showed Albert Einstein standing next to an hourglass. And since he was standing next to an hourglass, I thought, maybe he had something to do with time. So, I bought the book. The reading was rough going for me at the age of 11 but I did pick up the essence of it. It said that, in Newton’s theory, nothing can alter time but Einstein claimed that it is possible to alter time. To me it meant that if I could understand what Einstein meant with that, it would mean that it could lead to the scientific possibility of building a time machine. And that was the beginning of my interest in Einstein’s work.
Q: What is time travel from a scientific point of view?
Prof. Mallett: Einstein has said that there are two ways of altering time. In 1905 he developed the Special Theory of Relativity the essence of which is that time is affected by speed. And in 1915 he developed the theory of General Relativity which speaks of gravity. What Einstein meant by the Special Theory of Relativity is that the faster a clock moves the more time slows down.
Imagine an astronaut who will go out into space and is traveling close to the speed of light to, let’s say, a star that is about 25 light-years remote from Earth. For those who stay behind it will appear that it took the astronaut 50 years to go out into space and to come back to Earth. But time has slowed down to such a point that, for the astronaut, only 10 years has past. So, 50 years have passed on Earth but the astronaut has only aged 10 years. And that is what we mean with time travel into the future.
Q: But that is only travelling forwards. What about travelling backwards in time?
Prof. Mallett: Unfortunately, no matter how fast you will travel, you cannot travel back into the past.The light barrier keeps us from going faster than the speed of light (c). Straightforward, the problem lies in the energy barrier. Einstein’s equation E=mc2 shows that matter and energy is equivalent to each other. When you have a small amount of matter you can create a large amount of energy. If you have enough amount of energy you can create mass. But the equation works the other way too.
Let’s suppose you have built a rocket that goes close to the speed of light c. If you give it enough energy the rocket will go faster but some of the injected energy will go into the mass of the rocket itself what makes it heavier. This means that you need to provide it with more energy for the rocket to keep its speed. But the more energy you inject, the more weight the rocket will gain until it reaches a point it will stop or not leaving Earth at all. So, if you want to let a rocket travel at c you need an infinite amount of energy. This infinite amount of energy is a way of saying, ‘you cannot do it’. And that is why you cannot travel faster than c. This, unfortunately, also means that we cannot travel to the past by speed. But there is another way in where gravity can be thought of as a medium rather than a force.
According to Einstein, what we call today “the force of gravity” isn’t a force at all. It’s actually a bending of space. The simplest way of thinking about it is to imagine a rubber sheet, similar to a trampoline. When you put a bowling ball on the rubber sheet it starts to bend. Now, if you take a marble and put it on that rubber sheet it will roll down towards the bowling ball. Imagine that the rubber sheet being transparent. The only thing you will see is the bowling ball and the marble. Putting the marble on the transparent sheet the visible effect will be the marble moving towards the bowling ball. As a result it will appear as though the bowling ball is directly attracting the marble but what is actually happening is that the marble is moving towards the bowling ball due to the fact that the transparent sheet is being curved by the bowling ball. According to Einstein in his General Theory of Relativity this is analogous to what the sun is doing to empty space. In other words, the sun is curving the empty space and the earth is moving in that curved space. So gravity is the curving of space.
Now this bending of space also leads to the bending of time.
The bending of time appears to us as clock slowing down. The more space is curved, the more time slows down. Since time can be bent then there may be ways twisting it so we can travel to the past.
Q: How realistic is the possible that a practicable working time machine is sending information in the form of subatomic particles or an object back into the past?
Prof. Mallett: From a science fiction point of view people have become familiar with the idea of sending an object or even a human being through time. But sending information through time can be much more important then sending an object through time. However, I feel that with current technology it is possible, at the very least, to send subatomic particles back into the past.
Once I received a letter from Germany what contained several photos. The first photo showed a middle aged couple with a young woman. The next photo showed the young woman being happy and in full health. The third photo showed a mangled car. The fourth photo, what actually brought tears to my eyes, showed the young woman in a coffin. The middle aged couple, who wrote me the letter, were the parents of this young woman who was killed in a car accident. The father wanted to know if it was possible to send information back in time for his daughter not to step into that car. And this is why, in some ways, sending information is more important then sending back an object through time.
Q: Sending information through time in order to prevent an event from happening, does that not cause distortions in a parallel universe or time line?
Prof. Mallett: There a several schools of thought concerning the Grandfather Paradox. One of them is that when you go back in time you cause a real ripple effect what alters everyone’s reality entirely.
Another view is the “Many-worlds interpretation” which is a view a myriad of physicists like. The parallel universe notion was not invented to deal with time travel. Back in 1957 physicist Hugh Everett III wanted to apply the Quantum theory to the universe as a whole. Now the Quantum theory is based on the Heisenberg uncertainty principle what says that you cannot predict exactly what is going to happen in the future. It shows the probability of a future.
However, Everett’s research led to the following strange prediction; suppose you go to a restaurant and have breakfast. As you are looking at the menu, you see item A and item B and you have chosen item B. According to Everett there is now an actual split of the universe in where there is a Maria who has chosen item B but there is also a Maria who has chosen item A. Although both Maria’s do not know each other, they are both real but in separated universes. What Everett did was, he took out the probability and said that both are actually happening. This is called “Super Space”.
Another view on this paradox is the applying of Everett’s notion of the Many-worlds interpretation to time travel by physicist David Deutsch. What he found was that when you travel to the past, there will be a split in that particular universe as soon as you arrive. And so, due to splitting of that particular universe, you could find yourself in a universe in which you can prevent your grandparents for meeting each other. You will then find yourself in a weird universe in which you were never born. However, there is the other universe in which you don’t arrive and in that universe your grandparents meeting each other and eventually you were born. You will find that you cannot go back to your original universe and keep ending up in a parallel universe. As a result David Deutsch’s theory actually resolves the Grandfather Paradox.
Q: How would the technology, or device, what would transmit subatomic particles back into the past due to twisting space and thus time, look like?
Prof. Mallett: Information could be sent to the past in binary form using subatomic particles. A neutron is a subatomic particle that has only two directions of spin. Its axis of spin can be either point up or down. If we assigned the number 1 to the spin up direction and the number 0 to the spin down direction then we can send information by using a stream of neutrons. For example, a stream of neutrons with spin up, spin down, spin down would correspond to 100 which is the binary representation of the number 4. Since computers operate using a binary code of ones and zeros then the information could be read by computers interfaced with suitable neutron detectors.
Q: How, if possible, does the behaviour of a Black Hole correlate with Time Travel?
Prof. Mallett: First you need a necessary condition which is the twisting of space, which is caused by gravity, and that will lead to the twisting of time, which is caused by rotation, which is the sufficient condition. But the amount of energy that seems to twist space isn’t as great as the energy that seems to twist time. In other words, the rotation of the Earth can cause a twisting in space but the energy of a, for instance, rotating Black Hole can be great enough to lead to the twisting of time. A rotating Black Hole not only allows you to travel to the future but can also lead to loops in time which leads to the possibility of you traveling back into the past.
In fact Kurt Gödel, a mathematician and known for his logic, was one of the earliest scientists who looked at the notion of a rotating universe. If the universe was rotating as a hole, he had solved Einstein’s gravitation equations and was able to show that it leads to loops in time which leads to the real possibility to time travel. For me that was one of the most important papers being published and convinced me that Einstein’s Theory of General Relativity was the way to go for me to understand the possibility of time traveling to the past.
“At times I did have doubts about achieving my goal. What sustained me and continues to drive me forward is the love that I had and still have for my father.”
Q: Today you are a Professor Emeritus and Research Professor of Physics at the University of Connecticut, and you can look back on an impressive career and much to be proud of; what would you say is a moment in your career that stands out as most meaningful?
Prof. Mallett: The moment of my career that really stands out for me was when I had my breakthrough realizing that a circulating beam of laser light could lead to a twisting of space and time and that this could result in time travel to the past. This resulted in my breakthrough paper “Weak Gravitational Field of the Electromagnetic Radiation in a Ring Laser” being accepted and published in the professional journal Physics Letters A. It was at this point that I felt that my father would be proud of me.
Q: Can you explain to our readers how this ‘closed loop’ or ‘ring laser’ works whereby it is possible to travel to the past and to the future?
Prof. Mallett: First of all, the bending of space causes the bending time whereby this bending is slowing down the time. But there is another effect that can occur as well. It turns out that you not only can ‘bend’ time but you can also ‘twist’ time. Newton’s theory says that the only thing that creates gravity is matter, in Einstein’s theory not only matter can create gravity but light itself can create gravity. Even though light does not have matter, however, it contains energy what can create gravity. And this is what my breakthrough is based on. If gravity can affect time and light can create gravity then light can affect time.
This ‘device’ I describe in my book “Time Traveler: A Scientist’s Personal Mission to Make Time Travel a Reality” as a ‘ring laser’, is capable of generating an intense, coherent, and continuously circulating beam of light. At the corners of the device mirrors are placed of which the first mirror is a semi-reflecting mirror. It allows light to come through in one single action. The other mirrors reflect the light what in turn creates a loop of light. Through the light circulating the empty space in the centre is starting to be twisted. This phenomenon is known as ‘inertial frame-dragging’. If a Neutron is placed in the centre of the laser, the Neutron start moving around and that is how we would know that space is being twisted.
Q: How long do you expect it will take before a practicable time machine will be fact?
Prof. Mallett: That is a very interesting question. In 2018 I was interviewed by NBC News and they asked me the same question. My reply was “Funding”. Many people do not realize how expensive these experiments are. For example, in 2017 the Nobel Prize was won for the discovery of gravitational waves. The experiment observed the collision of two Black Holes which led to the vibrations of empty space that we call gravity waves, which was already predicted by Einstein about 100 years ago, had costs one billion dollars. This also applies to, for example, space programs. For people to travel to the moon, that costs billions of dollars. Not to speak of the Large Hadron collider what cost in the range of 10 billion dollars.
We have submitted my idea of twisting of space, not twisting of time, to the National Science Foundation and that was something they said was doable. But for us to do feasibility study alone is going to costs about a quarter of million dollars (250,000 dollars). Even though I have a collaborator, who is a specialist in lasers, scientific progress is not something you can predict due to, for instance, the competition with other projects. However, let’s suppose that we can get adequate amount of funding for it, it will take probably 5 years to demonstrate the effect of space twisting. What we are hoping to learn from the first part is how to overcome the energy barrier that my critics have correctly talked about regarding time twisting. This second part can easily take 10 years, or more, after the first part has accomplished. We don’t know yet. We can only see that when the energy barrier has been overcome.
“To understand what happened at the moment of creation requires a theory that successfully combines quantum mechanics and general relativity. No completely successful theory yet exists. What happened before the moment of creation is open to speculation.”
Q: In the prologue of your book you write; ‘Since the age of eleven, I had only told a few confidants about my secret dream.’ ‘…my hope for turning one man’s favorite science fiction fantasies into a scientific reality.’ How did you experienced this remarkable moment and how the audience reacted on your work being presented in great detail?
Prof. Mallett: I was really nerves.Especially because the person who gave a talk before me was actually was a very well known and respected physicist Bryce DeWitt. I felt proud when, at the end of my talk, DeWitt said; “I don’t know if you ever see your father. But I do know he would have been proud of you.”
My critics where not criticizing my equations but the possibility of realizing the technology behind it all. So you might say that the highest form of praise is when your colleagues feel that it is worth their while to actually say that what you have done is serious and critique it.
Q: Not only are you seen as a true pioneer in describing the technology of a real practicable working time machine, what is indeed a culmination of a lifelong quest, you also authored a book about your work. What inspired you to write the book, “Time Traveler; A Scientists Mission To Make Time Travel A Reality!?
Prof. Mallett: I wrote “Time Traveler” as both an autobiography and popular science book to make the general public aware of the real scientific possibility of time travel based on Einstein’s theories of relativity and to also give insight into the struggles that I had to overcome with poverty and prejudice as an African-American to acquire the knowledge necessary to achieve my goal. My hope was that the book would be informative and inspirational.
Q: What does the future holds for your books?
Prof. Mallett: Well, I am thinking of writing a sequel once I get the funding. But what I am really excited about is that Hollywood has become interested in my memoir and has decided to make a feature film of it. For me there two things why I am this excited about this movie; to see my father portrayed on a big screen will almost seem that he is being brought back to life. The other thing is that my work is going to be brought to a huge audience. Maybe there is someone in the audience who is interested in investing in the scientific possibilities behind it. Someone who says, ‘Hey, let’s talk to Mallett and find out what he is up to’.
When the script is done this year, it means that it will go into development next year and hopefully come out in 2021.
Q: Prof. Mallett, thank you so much for this interview. I am sure it will be an inspiration to many. Do you have any additional advice you can give for aspiring physicists and theoretical physicists who want to dive into the mysteries of the universe?
Prof. Mallett: When I talk to people I emphasize STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics) because we live in a highly technological world. And what I tell young people that, for me, I cannot think of a better way of life than to try to contribute to the human race by advancing, by using our knowledge in science, in engineering and in math to actually improve things for the human race. I have found that that is the most satisfying thing to me in my life.
Think about it, to be paid to explore the universe and to try to find out what the real things of nature are… I cannot think of anything that is more exciting than that. Sometime people ask, especially when it comes to physics, ‘How are you going to make a living from that?’ But the thing is you will be able to find that way. Yes, it does enquire dedication and hard work though but there are so many exciting scientific fields out there. All of these scientific fields have contributed in ways more than thought about originally. For instance, think about what the science of DNA have done as far as for the criminal justice system. It actually allows people who where convicted wrongly to set free and people who deserved to be convicted, to go to jail.
I encourage young people to think about exploring some of these excited fields of science and experience how exciting it is to deal with something that is actually going to make a major impact for mankind. They will be able to contribute to the betterment of the human race.[Top]
Today, anno 2020, I may say with pride that I am the founder and owner of The Next Truth magazine what has become international within one year and is focusing on an academic trained audience, citizen scientists and those who have an indomitable curiosity for scientific explanations concerning topics viewed, and thought of, by the majority as myths.
Also, since January 2020, The Next Truth saw the opportunity to take the next step and expand with a second bi-monthly magazine, “Young People Science”. And since recently, The Next Truth has found the possibility to create a flipbook for anyone who is interested in the incredible stories and research conducted by scientists and citizen scientists, but is not in the position to purchase a print version of the magazine.
Working in the midst of world-renowned scientists as well as speaking with citizen scientists who are conducting amazing research in their own field of interest and specialize their already possessing skills even more…it is a true honor having the opportunity to be a part of this all and to see the progress you have made.
But I couldn’t have said the above if I didn’t had the one person who had the courage to publish my very first and extremely bad written, article in her magazine (Paranormal Underground Magazine) in 2015. What where you thinking Cheryl !! 😂
However, the moral of my words is; when you start to find yourself climbing out of a crazy jungle and looking over the surface of the tall grass into a direction in where your goal is getting clearer, never forget those who backed you up. We all started at the bottom and worked ourselves up with the help of others.
Once Cheryl-Knight Wilson was my teacher, editor and, if I may express it that way, my boss. Today she is my colleague magazine. 😊
Many, many thanks Cheryl taking me in back then and providing me the change to refine my witting skills.
For your connection to paranormal realms: https://paranormalunderground.net/
For the flipbook of The Next Truth: https://www.yumpu.com/…/630660…/the-next-truth-february-2020
For reading the full article “Scientists are Conducting Fundamental Research with ‘Speed Machines’” http://nexttruth.com/?p=24575[Top]
First of all, The Next Truth has made a new step in creating for you a flipbook https://www.yumpu.com/en/document/view/63052050/the-next-truth-january-2020 Happy reading 🙂
Secondly…for February issue The Next Truth has gathered several incredible scientific research articles for you in where scientists and citizen scientists are exploring and altering the well-known realms of the unknown.
Throughout history many have tried to wrap their minds around the question of what this foggy state of the mind is. But is this state, we seem to be stuck in, really this foggy? Is it an odd kind of an overlapping of different frames of space-time in where energy is forming its own density and, for us, recognizable objects? Is it possible that we are another state of reality? This present moment what you are experiencing right now, is this consciousness and is this as close as you get to reality? Well, these are some tricky questions! And, probably, some of the deepest questions you have ever asked in your life.
Indeed, the reality of the yet unknown is by definition a strange dimension.[Top]
2008 was the year that I typed the first story telling words on my laptop and I felt proud when I saved the word document. It took me 6 years after that before I wrote my first scientific lines for a booklet having only 95 pages and it t took me 3 years more before I wrote my very first scientific article. A real crappy one compared to my latest publications. Really, it was that bad, I cannot edit this myself anymore! And yes, I still have the article what bears the title, “Tachyon; the Leading Element in Evolution? “
Nevertheless, holding the home printed version of my very first scientific article I felt like standing at the top of the Mount Everest. I had reached the top of my writing skills! Hum, I was wrong. Standing on that mountain a helicopter flew over and the pilot informed me that I was not on the mountain I thought I was on—apparently that is a few hundred kilometers in a different direction. How did I end up here? Not to worry, I can tweak a couple of parameters and then apply my insights to the actual mountain I was standing on—assuming it is actually a mountain—has anyone checked?
After all those years of writing it turned out that I was just starting. 2 more years of struggling and pushing the boundaries in learning more about the scientific fields and how to find the correct words which are expressing both the complexity and the beauty of contemporary science, was what I still had in front of me.
Today, anno 2020, 4 books, 17 published issues of The Next Truth and over two dozen articles can be added to my leaning process. But have I reached that point in where I have aced my writing skills? May I tell myself that I am allowed to look out for the highest point of the Mount Everest?
In the second week of January 2020 I received an email from IWMF (International Woman’s Media Foundation) what stated that several grant proposals had been opened that provided me the opportunity to submit my proposal. Even this feeling of ‘is my English sufficient enough for this’ started to overpower me I was eager to start. So, I opened the form and, when scrolling to the bottom, I found that I needed two professional references. SH*T!
It took two days but I found two people willing to act as a reference. Yes…fantastic! Thank you so much. And so, the next day I started to write but what I did not knew in that euphoric moment was that writing this grant proposal turned out to become 3 days of pure Hell on Earth!
My surrounding did not understand me. Why was I putting in these tremendous efforts for something which I probably would not get anyway? “It is an uncertain factor, a waste of time! So, why all these efforts for nothing?“ Because I believe in myself, that is why!
Three days passed by of writing, rewriting and pushing my own boundaries…again because this was not the first time that I wrote into a grant proposal. I felt alone, not understood and my brain was slowly turning into something that looked like crumb cake. The moment I finally clicked the ‘submit‘ button, what was about 01:30 in the morning, I could no longer distinguish the letters from the words.
Three days after I started writing my grant proposal, I found myself staring at my computer screen reading these words “Your application has been submitted successfully” over and over again. There I was, tired and alone in the middle of the night and…I cried. I felt relieved, exited and shitty at the same time while dealing with these thoughts of not being selected as a candidate for this grant. People will say…”You see, it was all for nothing. You are just not good enough!”
Now, you can say, “Ah, there is that female thing again“, but in my opinion, these feelings are logical and normal. It does not show weakness, as some might think of that moment in where someone is expressing his/her emotions and/or thoughts; it shows that you are human first.
For those who write into grant proposals on a regular base, regardless the topic and financial amounts involved, you have my full respect because you have giving more then 100% of yourself.[Top]